Kubernetes and Google Cloud SQL

Tip submitted by @bourdux

While it is already easy to deploy a JHipster application to Google Container Engine using the Kubernetes sub-generator, the default behaviour is to create a Google Compute Engine VM for the database.

If you want to take it one step further and use a fully-managed MySQL instance, you can use Google Cloud SQL. It allows automated backups, maintenance, replication for high availability and nice scalability features.

In this tip/tutorial, I will show you how you can deploy a JHipster application on Google Cloud that will use a Google Cloud SQL database as a MySQL backend. In order to simplify the process, we will use a monolithic application. We will also use a Maven build since it is my favourite one :p

Prerequisites

For this tutorial, you will need:

Initialize gcloud and kubectl

First of all, if you never used gcloud, you need to initialize it with the following command:

gcloud init

gcloud allows you to perform most the operations you could do from the Google Cloud Web console from the comfort of your terminal. First of all, let’s install kubectl

gcloud components install kubectl

kubectl is a command line interface for running commands against Kubernetes clusters. You can also install it directly from the Kubernetes website but overall I found the gcloud installation more convenient.

Now you need to create a google cloud project. For this purpose you will need to go through the web console, as gcloud does not allow you to create projects from CLI (not yet as it is an alpha feature). Alternatively you can use the Resource Manager API.

  • Go to Google Cloud Platform Console
  • Click Create Project
  • Pick a project name, click Create and note the project ID, and/or customize as you feel.

For this tutorial, purpose I picked the name jhipster-kubernetes-cloud-sql.

Then you need to:

Finally you need to tell gcloud on which project you are currently working:

gcloud config set project jhipster-kubernetes-cloud-sql

You can also tell it where you want your instances to be created by default. I chose europe-west1-b since I am a cheap European :)

gcloud config set compute/zone europe-west1-b

Create a Cloud SQL instance

Then you need to create a Google Cloud SQL instance. You can do this via the web console, which is nice to get a good understanding on the available options or once again you can use gcloud.

gcloud beta sql instances create jhipster-sqlcloud-db --region=europe-west1 --tier=db-f1-micro\
 --authorized-networks=`curl -s ifconfig.co` --backup-start-time=01:00 --enable-bin-log \
 --activation-policy=ALWAYS --storage-type=HDD --storage-size=10GB

With this command we create a SQL Cloud instance called jhipster-sql-cloud-db in the europe-west1 region. We choose the smallest machine type available. To see the full list of available tiers you can use gcloud sql tiers list. Then we whitelist our own ip for access with mysql CLI, setup a backup time window starting from 1AM UTC, enable binary logging so we can go back in time if something goes wrong with the application. Finally we set the machine to be always activated (necessary as second generation machines are billed per use), set up a HDD storage (SSD is more performant but more expensive) and set the storage size to the minimum size. Note: we need to use the beta gcloud client to create second generation SQL instances.

You can check that your instance started with the following command

gcloud sql instances list
NAME                   REGION        TIER         ADDRESS         STATUS
jhipster-sqlcloud-db  europe-west1  db-f1-micro  146.148.21.155  RUNNABLE

Since we whitelisted our IP address, we should be able to access to the DB instance with mysql

mysql --host=146.148.21.155 --user=root --password
...
mysql>

Since we’re connected to the database let us create the application database and user. Since we will be using the Cloud SQL proxy to connect the SQL instance from our application container, the user hostname can be set to cloudsqlproxy~% if you want to only allow connections through the proxy. The application name for this tutorial is jhipsterGoogleCloudSql so the database name should have the same name if we want to use the configuration generated by JHipster.

mysql> CREATE DATABASE jhipstergooglecloudsql;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0,03 sec)

mysql> CREATE USER 'jhipster'@'cloudsqlproxy~%';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0,01 sec)

mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON jhipstergooglecloudsql.* TO 'jhipster'@'cloudsqlproxy~%';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0,01 sec)

mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0,02 sec)

Do not forget to change the database user to jhipster in application-prod.yml

Create a container cluster

Let us create a container cluster using GKE

gcloud container clusters create jhipster-sqlcloud-cluster --zone=europe-west1-b --machine-type=g1-small --num-nodes=1

For this tutorial, we will use only 1 small node. In production, you will want at least 3 nodes :)

Let us then get kubectl get proper credentials for this cluster

gcloud container clusters get-credentials jhipster-sqlcloud-cluster

Fetching cluster endpoint and auth data.
kubeconfig entry generated for jhipster-sqlcloud-cluster.

Building and pushing the docker image

First of all run the Kubernetes sub-generator. Reply to the questions as usual but let us use Container engine by pushing our docker image on Google Cloud. To the question “What should we use for the base Docker repository name?”, reply by gcr.io/jhipster-kubernetes-cloud-sql. Replace with your project ID. For the docker image push command let us use gcloud docker -- push in order to push to the project container repository.

Build your image

mvn package -Pprod jibDockerBuild

Tag the image (replace with your jhipster application name). We use v1 as a tag to be able to easily deploy new versions of the application or rollback if something goes horribly wrong.

docker image tag jhipstergooglecloudsql gcr.io/jhipster-kubernetes-cloud-sql/jhipstergooglecloudsql:v1

You can then push the image to Google Container engine as follows:

gcloud docker -- push gcr.io/jhipster-kubernetes-cloud-sql/jhipstergooglecloudsql:v1

Get the credentials and register them with Kubernetes

In order to use the Cloud SQL proxy, we will have to create credentials for our application and to register them to Kubernetes. The full process is available in the Cloud SQL container engine connection documentation but let me summarize the commands here.

Create a service account for your JHipster application

gcloud iam service-accounts create jhipster-application --display-name="JHipster application"

Get the full iam account name (email used to generate key)

gcloud iam service-accounts list
NAME                                    EMAIL
JHipster application                    [email protected]ccount.com

Give editor access to the project to the service account

gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding jhipster-kubernetes-cloud-sql \
 --member serviceAccount:[email protected]ccount.com \
 --role roles/editor

Create the key and store it in jhipster-credentials.json

gcloud iam service-accounts keys create \
--iam-account [email protected]ccount.com jhipster-credentials.json

We will use this key later when

Register the key with kubectl

kubectl create secret generic cloudsql-oauth-credentials --from-file=credentials.json=jhipster-credentials.json

Modify the Kubernetes deployment config

First of all you can delete the generated mysql deployment file since we are going with a Cloud SQL instance.

Then we need to change a few things in jhipstergooglecloudsql-deployment.yml. First of all the Spring data source URL should be changed to localhost since we will be using a Cloud SQL proxy:

jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/jhipstergooglecloudsql?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf8&useSSL=false

Then you can add the version number to the container image:

image: gcr.io/jhipster-kubernetes-cloud-sql/jhipstergooglecloudsql:v1

Then we need to add an entry to deploy the cloud sql proxy with the sidecar pattern:

- image: b.gcr.io/cloudsql-docker/gce-proxy:1.05
  name: cloudsql-proxy
  command: ["/cloud_sql_proxy", "--dir=/cloudsql",
            "-instances=jhipster-kubernetes-cloud-sql:europe-west1:jhipster-sqlcloud-db=tcp:3306",
            "-credential_file=/secrets/cloudsql/credentials.json"]
  volumeMounts:
    - name: cloudsql-oauth-credentials
      mountPath: /secrets/cloudsql
      readOnly: true
    - name: ssl-certs
      mountPath: /etc/ssl/certs

As we may have noted, we also need to provide SSL certificates to communicate with Google API so we can connect to our Cloud SQL instance.

And finally add the appropriate volumes:

volumes:
  - name: cloudsql-oauth-credentials
    secret:
      secretName: cloudsql-oauth-credentials
  - name: ssl-certs
    hostPath:
      path: /etc/ssl/certs

The full deployment file should now look like this:

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: jhipstergooglecloudsql
spec:
  replicas: 1
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: jhipstergooglecloudsql
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: jhipstergooglecloudsql
        image: gcr.io/jhipster-kubernetes-cloud-sql/jhipstergooglecloudsql:v1
        env:
        - name: SPRING_PROFILES_ACTIVE
          value: prod
        - name: SPRING_DATASOURCE_URL
          value: jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/jhipstergooglecloudsql?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf8&useSSL=false
        ports:
        - containerPort: 8080
      - image: b.gcr.io/cloudsql-docker/gce-proxy:1.05
        name: cloudsql-proxy
        command: ["/cloud_sql_proxy", "--dir=/cloudsql",
                  "-instances=jhipster-kubernetes-cloud-sql:europe-west1:jhipster-sqlcloud-db=tcp:3306",
                  "-credential_file=/secrets/cloudsql/credentials.json"]
        volumeMounts:
          - name: cloudsql-oauth-credentials
            mountPath: /secrets/cloudsql
            readOnly: true
          - name: ssl-certs
            mountPath: /etc/ssl/certs
      volumes:
        - name: cloudsql-oauth-credentials
          secret:
            secretName: cloudsql-oauth-credentials
        - name: ssl-certs
          hostPath:
            path: /etc/ssl/certs

You can then deploy the cluster with kubectl apply

kubectl apply -f jhipstergooglecloudsql

deployment "jhipstergooglecloudsql" created
service "jhipstergooglecloudsql" created

Then you can get the external IP through kubectl get services and test your application

kubectl get services jhipstergooglecloudsql
NAME                     CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP     PORT(S)    AGE
jhipstergooglecloudsql   10.95.251.18   104.199.51.11   8080/TCP   1m