Docker and Docker Compose Permalink to " Docker and Docker Compose"

Summary Permalink to "Summary"

Using Docker and Docker Compose is highly recommended in development, and is also a good solution in production.

  1. Description
  2. Prerequisites
  3. Building a Docker image of your application
  4. Generating a custom Docker-Compose configuration for multiple applications
  5. Working with databases
  6. Elasticsearch
  7. Sonar
  8. Keycloak
  9. Common commands
  10. Memory Tweaking

Description Permalink to "Description"

Please note: this Docker configuration is used to run your generated application(s) inside a container image. It’s completely different from the Docker setup that JHipster also provides, which is for running the JHipster generator inside a container

JHipster provides a complete Docker support, in order to:

  • Facilitate development, as you can start a full infrastructure with a single command, even when using a complex microservices architecture
  • For people using Docker Swarm, deploying to production directly, as it uses the same Docker Compose configuration

One great feature of using Docker Compose is that you can scale your containers, using the docker-compose scale command. This is very interesting if you use JHipster with a microservices architecture.

When generating your application, JHipster generates for you several Docker Compose configurations to help you run your application with third-party services, for example a database. Those files are located inside folder src/main/docker/.

Prerequisites Permalink to "Prerequisites"

You have to install Docker and Docker Compose:

Docker now requires creating an account to the docker store to download Docker for Mac and Docker for Windows. To bypass this

Tip: On Windows and Mac OS X, Kitematic is an easy-to-use graphical interface provided with the Docker Toolbox, which will makes using Docker a lot easier.
Warning: If you are using Docker Machine on Mac or Windows, your Docker daemon has only limited access to your OS X or Windows file system. Docker Machine tries to auto-share your /Users (OS X) or C:\Users\<username> (Windows) directory. So you have to create the project folder under this directory to avoid any issues.

If you encounter the error npm ERR! Error: EACCES: permission denied when installing JHipster UML (or any unbundled package), your container may not have sudo installed (for instance, sudo isn’t bundled with Ubuntu Xenial).

Solution 1

The NPM documentation recommends not installing any NPM package as root. Follow the official documentation to fix this.

Solution 2

  • docker container exec -u root -it jhipster bash,
  • npm install -g YOUR_PACKAGE,
  • then exit and log into the container normally: docker container exec -it jhipster bash

Building and running a Docker image of your application Permalink to "Building and running a Docker image of your application"

To build a Docker image of your application using Jib connecting to the local Docker daemon:

  • With Maven, type: ./mvnw package -Pprod verify jib:dockerBuild
  • With Gradle, type: ./gradlew -Pprod bootJar jibDockerBuild

To build a Docker image of your application without Docker and push it directly into your Docker registry, run:

  • With Maven, type: ./mvnw package -Pprod verify jib:build
  • With Gradle, type: ./gradlew -Pprod bootJar jib

If this doesn’t work out of the box for you, refer to the Jib documentation for configurations details, specifically regarding how to set up authentication to a Docker registry:

Warning:

Due to the way Jib works, it will first try to pull the latest version of the base Docker image from the configured Docker registry. This is on purpose as in a CI environment you must ensure that you always build on top of the latest patched base image.

However in a local environment, this might fail your build if jib cannot access the Docker registry. A workaround for this is to use the `--offline` flag and will fix the issue as long as jib has already pulled the base Docker image in its cache.

With Maven, type:

./mvnw -Pprod package verify jib:dockerBuild --offline
With Gradle, type:
./gradlew -Pprod bootJar jibDockerBuild --offline

Note that jib is currently unable to pull a local Docker image from the Docker daemon. Progress on this issue is tracked at [GoogleContainerTools/jib/issues/1468](https://github.com/GoogleContainerTools/jib/issues/1468).

To run this image, use the Docker Compose configuration located in the src/main/docker folder of your application:

  • docker-compose -f src/main/docker/app.yml up

This command will start up your application and the services it relies on (database, search engine, JHipster Registry…).

If you chose OAuth 2.0 for authentication, be sure to read our Keycloak section on this documentation.

Generating a custom Docker-Compose configuration for multiple applications Permalink to "Generating a custom Docker-Compose configuration for multiple applications"

If your architecture is composed of several JHipster applications, you can use the specific docker-compose sub-generator, which will generate a global Docker Compose configuration for all selected applications. This will allow you to deploy and scale your complete architecture with one command. To use the docker-compose subgenerator:

  • You need to have all your monolith(s), gateway(s) and microservices in the same directory.
  • Create another directory, for example mkdir docker-compose.
  • Go into that directory: cd docker-compose.
  • Run the sub-generator: jhipster docker-compose.
  • The sub-generator will ask you which application you want to have in your architecture, and if you want to setup monitoring with ELK or Prometheus.

This will generate a global Docker Compose configuration, type docker-compose up to run it, and have all your services running at once.

In the case of a microservice architecture, this configuration will also pre-configure a JHipster Registry or Consul, that will configure your services automatically:

  • Those services will wait until the JHipster Registry (or Consul) is running to start. This can be configured in your bootstrap-prod.yml file using the spring.cloud[.consul].config.fail-fast and spring.cloud[.consul].config.retry keys.
  • The registry will configure your applications, for example it will share the JWT secret token between all services.
  • Scaling each service is done using Docker Compose, for example type docker-compose scale test-app=4 to have 4 instances of application “test” running. Those instances will be automatically load-balanced by the gateway(s), and will automatically join the same Hazelcast cluster (if Hazelcast is your Hibernate 2nd-level cache).

Working with databases Permalink to "Working with databases"

MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, Oracle, MongoDB, Couchbase, Neo4j or Cassandra Permalink to "MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, Oracle, MongoDB, Couchbase, Neo4j or Cassandra"

Running docker-compose -f src/main/docker/app.yml up already starts up your database automatically.

If you only want to start your database, and not the other services, use the Docker Compose configuration of your database:

  • With MySQL: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/mysql.yml up
  • With MariaDB: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/mariadb.yml up
  • With PostgreSQL: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/postgresql.yml up
  • With Oracle: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/oracle.yml up
  • With MongoDB: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/mongodb.yml up
  • With Cassandra: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/cassandra.yml up
  • With Couchbase: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/couchbase.yml up
  • With Neo4j: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/neo4j.yml up

MongoDB Cluster Mode Permalink to "MongoDB Cluster Mode"

If you want to use MongoDB with a replica set or shards and a shared configuration between them, you need to build and set up manually MongoDB images. Follow these steps to do so:

  • Build the image: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/mongodb-cluster.yml build
  • Run the database: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/mongodb-cluster.yml up -d
  • Scale the MongoDB node service (you have to choose an odd number of nodes): docker-compose -f src/main/docker/mongodb-cluster.yml scale <name_of_your_app>-mongodb-node=<X>
  • Init the replica for mongo config server: docker exec -it <name_of_your_app>-mongodb-config mongo  --port 27019 --eval 'rs.initiate();'
  • Init the replica set (parameter X is the number of nodes you input in the previous step, folder is the folder where the YML file is located, it’s docker by default): docker container exec -it <yml_folder_name>_<name_of_your_app>-mongodb-node_1 mongo --port 27018 --eval 'var param=<X>, folder="<yml_folder_name>"' init_replicaset.js
  • Init the shard: docker container exec -it <yml_folder_name>_<name_of_your_app>-mongodb_1 mongo --eval 'sh.addShard("rs1/<yml_folder_name>_<name_of_your_app>-mongodb-node_1:27018")'
  • Build a Docker image of your application: ./mvnw -Pprod clean verify jib:dockerBuild or ./gradlew -Pprod clean bootJar jibDockerBuild
  • Start your application: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/app.yml up -d <name_of_your_app>-app

If you want to add or remove some MongoDB nodes, repeat step 3 and 4.

Couchbase Cluster Mode Permalink to "Couchbase Cluster Mode"

If you want to use Couchbase with multiple nodes, you need to build and set up manually Couchbase images. Follow these steps to do so:

  • Build the image: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/couchbase-cluster.yml build
  • Run the database: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/couchbase-cluster.yml up -d
  • Scale the Couchbase node service (you have to choose an odd number of nodes): docker-compose -f src/main/docker/couchbase-cluster.yml scale <name_of_your_app>-couchbase-node=<X>
  • Build a Docker image of your application: ./mvnw -Pprod clean verify jib:dockerBuild or ./gradlew -Pprod clean bootJar jibDockerBuild
  • Start your application: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/app.yml up -d <name_of_your_app>-app

Cassandra Permalink to "Cassandra"

Unlike the other databases, where the schema migrations are applied by the application itself, Cassandra schema migrations are applied by a dedicated Docker container.

Cassandra in development Permalink to "Cassandra in development"

To start a Cassandra cluster to run your application locally, you can use the docker_compose file for development use: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/cassandra.yml up -d

Docker-compose will start 2 services:

  • <name_of_your_app>-cassandra: a container with the Cassandra node contact point
  • <name_of_your_app>-cassandra-migration: a container to automatically apply all CQL migrations scripts (create the Keyspace, create the tables, all data migrations, …)

See the Cassandra page for more information on how to add new CQL scripts without restarting the local cluster.

Cassandra in production: Permalink to "Cassandra in production:"

The app.yml docker-compose file uses cassandra-cluster.yml to configure the cluster. The application starts after few seconds (see JHIPSTER_SLEEP variable) to gives the time to the cluster to start and the migrations to be applied.

One big difference between Cassandra and the other databases, is that you can scale your cluster with Docker Compose. To have X+1 nodes in your cluster, run:

  • docker-compose -f src/main/docker/cassandra-cluster.yml scale <name_of_your_app>-cassandra-node=X

Microsoft SQL Server Permalink to "Microsoft SQL Server"

If you want to use the MSSQL Docker image with JHipster, there are a few steps to follow:

  • Increase the RAM available to Docker to at least 3.25GB
  • Run the database: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/mssql.yml up -d
  • Create the database with a MSSQL client of your choice
  • Start your application: docker-compose -f src/main/docker/app.yml up -d <name_of_your_app>-app

Elasticsearch Permalink to "Elasticsearch"

Running docker-compose -f src/main/docker/app.yml up already starts up your search engine automatically.

If you only want to start your Elasticsearch node, and not the other services, use its specific Docker Compose configuration:

  • docker-compose -f src/main/docker/elasticsearch.yml up

Sonar Permalink to "Sonar"

A Docker Compose configuration is generated for running Sonar:

  • docker-compose -f src/main/docker/sonar.yml up

To analyze your code, run Sonar on your project:

  • With Maven: ./mvnw initialize sonar:sonar
  • With Gradle: ./gradlew sonar

The Sonar reports will be available at: http://localhost:9000

Keycloak Permalink to "Keycloak"

If you chose OAuth 2.0 as your authentication, Keycloak is used as the default identity provider. Running docker-compose -f src/main/docker/app.yml up starts up Keycloak automatically.

To make Keycloak work, you need to add the following line to your hosts file (/etc/hosts on Mac/Linux, c:\Windows\System32\Drivers\etc\hosts on Windows).

127.0.0.1	keycloak

This is because you will access your application with a browser on your machine (which name is localhost, or 127.0.0.1), but inside Docker it will run in its own container, which name is keycloak.

If you only want to start Keycloak, and not the other services, use its specific Docker Compose configuration:

  • docker-compose -f src/main/docker/keycloak.yml up

Common commands Permalink to "Common commands"

List the containers Permalink to "List the containers"

You can use docker container ps -a to list all the containers

$ docker container ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                    NAMES
fc35e1090021        mysql               "/entrypoint.sh mysql"   4 seconds ago       Up 4 seconds        0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp   sampleApplication-mysql

Docker stats for containers Permalink to "Docker stats for containers"

docker container stats or docker container stats $(docker container ps --format={{.Names}}) to list all running containers with CPU, Memory, Networking I/O and Block I/O stats.

$ docker container stats $(docker container ps --format={{.Names}})
CONTAINER                 CPU %               MEM USAGE / LIMIT     MEM %               NET I/O               BLOCK I/O             PIDS
jhips-mysql               0.04%               221 MB / 7.966 GB     2.77%               66.69 kB / 36.78 kB   8.802 MB / 302.5 MB   37
00compose_msmongo-app_1   0.09%               965.6 MB / 7.966 GB   12.12%              121.3 kB / 54.64 kB   89.84 MB / 14.88 MB   35
00compose_gateway-app_1   0.39%               1.106 GB / 7.966 GB   13.89%              227.5 kB / 484 kB     117 MB / 28.84 MB     92
jhipster-registry         0.74%               1.018 GB / 7.966 GB   12.78%              120.2 kB / 126.4 kB   91.12 MB / 139.3 kB   63
gateway-elasticsearch     0.27%               249.1 MB / 7.966 GB   3.13%               42.57 kB / 21.33 kB   48.16 MB / 4.096 kB   58
00compose_jhips-app_1     0.29%               1.042 GB / 7.966 GB   13.08%              101.8 kB / 78.84 kB   70.08 MB / 13.5 MB    68
msmongo-mongodb           0.34%               44.8 MB / 7.966 GB    0.56%               49.72 kB / 48.08 kB   33.97 MB / 811 kB     18
gateway-mysql             0.03%               202.7 MB / 7.966 GB   2.54%               60.84 kB / 31.22 kB   27.03 MB / 297 MB     37

Scale a container Permalink to "Scale a container"

Run docker-compose scale test-app=4 to have 4 instances of application “test” running.

Stop containers Permalink to "Stop containers"

docker-compose -f src/main/docker/app.yml stop

You can also use directly Docker:

docker container stop <container_id>

When you stop a container, the data is not deleted, unless you delete the container.

Delete a container Permalink to "Delete a container"

Be careful! All data will be deleted:

docker container rm <container_id>

Memory Tweaking Permalink to "Memory Tweaking"

In order to optimize memory usage for applications running in the container, you can setup Java memory parameters on Dockerfile or docker-compose.yml

Adding memory parameters to Dockerfile Permalink to "Adding memory parameters to Dockerfile"

Set the environment variable.

ENV JAVA_OPTS=-Xmx512m -Xms256m

Adding memory parameters to docker-compose.yml Permalink to "Adding memory parameters to docker-compose.yml"

This solution is desired over Dockerfile. In this way, you have a single control point for your memory configuration on all containers that compose your application.

Add the JAVA_OPTS into environment section.

    environment:
      - (...)
      - JAVA_OPTS=-Xmx512m -Xms256m

Depending on the Docker base image, JAVA_OPTS won’t work. In this case, try to use _JAVA_OPTIONS instead:

    environment:
      - (...)
      - _JAVA_OPTIONS=-Xmx512m -Xms256m